Neodyum Miknatis
maderba.com
implant
olabahis
Casino Siteleri
canli poker siteleri meritslot
escort antalya
istanbul escort
sirinevler escort
antalya eskort bayan
brazzers
Articles

Supreme Court approves criminal liability of suspect refusing to unlock his smartphone

Supreme Court approves criminal liability of suspect refusing to unlo

Supreme Court approves criminal liability of suspect refusing to unlock his smartphone

06.02.2020 BE law

In a groundbreaking judgment, the Belgian Supreme Court (Court of Cassation) states that the investigating judge may order a suspect to provide the access code of his mobile phone. Hans Van Bavel and Charlotte Conings, our specialists in criminal law, shed a light on the judgment.

For several years now, the compatibility of the order to issue passwords and PIN codes to decrypt computers and smartphones and the defendant's right to remain silent is heavily discussed. Judges at first instance and in appeal have answered the question in different ways. Yesterday, the Supreme Court decided on the issue in a case involving a drug trafficker who was prosecuted for refusing to give the access code of two mobile phones found at his premises.  The Court of Appeal of Ghent acquitted him in October. According to the Court of Appeal, the decryption order violated the right to remain silent and the prohibition of self-incrimination. However, the Supreme Court did not follow that line of reasoning.

The Court indicates that the right not to incriminate oneself and the presumption of innocence are not absolute and must be weighed against other rights such as the right to freedom and security and the prohibition of abuse of rights. The main purpose of the right is to avoid false statements made under coercion and thus unreliable evidence, a risk which does not exist in case of a decryption order, according to the Court. Moreover, the information received through coercion is limited (only a key/password/code) and in itself not incriminating. Moreover, the key is only used to make legible what the investigators themselves have found. The latter will, furthermore, have to prove that the accused knows the code. Finally, the right of the accused to defend himself with regard to the unlocked data remains intact.

According to the Supreme Court the obligation to decrypt is vital for truth finding. It refers, in that regard, to the general availability of encryption tools and the current state of technology that often makes it almost impossible to gain access to a secured computer system or encrypted data.

In brief, the Court speaks plainly: an investigating judge may order a suspect to provide information on the operation of computer systems and on the means of gaining access to them. A suspect who refuses to hand over the access code of his mobile phone risks criminal sanctions, including imprisonment.

In the context of this debate, a preliminary question was recently referred to the Constitutional Court. It remains to be seen whether the Constitutional Court will agree with the Supreme Court or whether, on the other hand, the divergent views will be confirmed at the highest level.

For a detailed analysis of the topic, see: CONINGS, C., KERKHOFS, J., “U hebt het recht te zwijgen. Uw login kan en zal tegen u worden gebruikt? Over ontsleutelplicht, zwijgrecht en 'nemo tenetur'”, NC 2018, afl. 5, 457-472 (www.nullumcrimen.be)

Team

Related news

27.01.2021 NL law
Overzichtsuitspraak ABRvS: overmacht en de wettelijke dwangsommen wegens niet tijdig beslissen. Hoe werkt dat?

Short Reads - Overmacht bij een bestuursorgaan schort beslistermijnen en wettelijke dwangsomtermijnen zelfstandig op. Ook als een bestuursorgaan daarvan geen mededeling stuurt. Dat oordeelt de Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State (de Afdeling) in een overzichtsuitspraak van 16 december 2020. In dit blogbericht gaan wij nader in op de achtergrond van die uitspraak en duiden wij wat dit betekent voor de praktijk.

Read more

20.01.2021 NL law
Het bezoldigingsverslag van beursvennootschappen

Articles - Boekjaar 2020 was het eerste jaar waarin beursvennootschappen verplicht waren om hun verslaggeving over beloningen in te richten in overeenstemming met de nieuwe eisen voor het door de herziene Europese richtlijn aandeelhoudersrechten (SRD II) geïntroduceerde bezoldigingsverslag.

Read more

07.01.2021 NL law
Do the math: ACM publishes strategy on monitoring use algorithms

Short Reads - The ACM worries that the use of algorithms may lead to the creation of cartels, or nudge consumers towards a purchasing decision that is not in their best interest. Therefore, on 10 December 2020, it published a new policy document (in Dutch) setting out what businesses can expect when the ACM checks their algorithms. On the same day, the ACM also launched a trial with online music library Muziekweb to improve the ACM’s knowledge about the categories of data that are likely to be relevant in such investigations. All signs indicate the ACM’s intention to become more active in this area.

Read more